An endoscopy is a diagnostic procedure that allows a gastroenterologist to look at the interior lining of the oesophagus, stomach, and the first part of small intestine through a thin, flexible viewing instrument called a flexible endoscope An upper endoscopy is used to diagnose and, sometimes, treat conditions that affect the upper part of your digestive system, including the oesophagus, stomach and beginning of the small intestine (duodenum).

Indications for an endoscopy:

A gastroenterologist may recommend an endoscopy procedure to Investigate digestive signs and symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, difficulty swallowing and gastrointestinal bleeding.

Endoscopy is also used to collect tissue samples (biopsy) to test for diseases causing bleeding, inflammation, diarrhea or cancers of the digestive system.

In the procedure for endoscopy a flexible endoscope special instruments can be passes through the endoscope to treat conditions in of digestive system, such as acidity, control of bleeding vessel or assistant in widening a narrow oesophagus due to strictures, removal off a polyp or a foreign object.

Advances in gastrointestinal fibre-optic endoscopic technology have made endoscopy mandatory for gastrointestinal diagnosis, therapy, and endoscopy surgery.

An endoscopy is sometimes combined with other procedures, such as an ultrasound to view organs.

During an upper endoscopy process the patient will be asked to lie down on a table on his back or on his side. Sedation will be given for an anaesthetic will be sprayed in the mouth to numb the throat. The flexible endoscope which is a long, flexible tube (endoscope) is inserted in the mouth.

The doctor will ask the patient to swallow as the flexible endoscope scope passes down the throat and it then enters down your oesophagus. A tiny camera at the tip of the endoscope transmits images to a video monitor in the exam room. In the endoscopy procedure a gastroenterologist  watches the images on a monitor to look for abnormalities in your upper digestive tract.  Air pressure may be fed into the oesophagus to inflate the digestive tract which allows the endoscope to move freely, during the endoscopy procedure.

In cases of a surgical endoscope special surgical instruments are passes through the endoscope to collect a tissue sample or remove a polyp.